Cost-effective, large-scale production of organisms that produce compounds with nutritional interest is increasingly regarded as an answer to this search for novelty in the food sector. There are some records of the use of microalgae in human nutrition. There is growing evidence that microalgae can be a significant source of a diverse number of essential nutrients to support human health, namely macronutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals. Human nutritional requirements demand at least 23 mineral elements and the required daily quantities of mineral nutrients are small, particularly when compared with nutrients such as carbohydrates and lipids. The use of microalgae as source of nutrients started with and was confined to Arthrospira and Chlorella for a long time, but it has recently expanded as new studies progressively reveal the potential of many other taxa. Despite the disclosure of a large list of potential microalgae for food, the European market is mainly confined to Arthrospira and Chlorella.