Algae constitute a diverse and important group of organisms widely distributed on our planet. These organisms range from unicellular to multicellular forms and they play a fundamental ecological role as photosynthesizers, being responsible for the production of 50% of all the oxygen produced on Earth. Throughout many decades we have sought to better understand the origin of the millions of species that inhabit our planet. In increasing availability of genomic and transcriptomic data from organisms has facilitated the discoveries in this particular area. Important parts in the gradual evolutionary origin of plants would come from investigations concerning the general and specific characteristics of enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis, underlying events during cell division, correlations involving phytohormones, and more elaborated transcriptional regulations. Fossil fuels meet the growing energy needs of the world. However, its burning promotes climate change and depletes natural reserves. Given these impacts, biofuels produced from renewable resources can be a more sustainable alternative.