The potential of cyanobacteria for the production of enormous quantity of exopolysaccharide is well recognized. It has been demonstrated that controlled growth and harvesting of cyanobacterial biomass would enrich the productivity and production of value-added compounds in an economically viable manner. The most commercially successful cyanobacterial biotechnological applications start in the laboratory with screening experiments, identification of growth, and production optima or limitations, as well as hypotheses validations which all typically take place in a controlled laboratory environment. The high productivity of the cyanobacteria is possible via boosting cellular production on a metabolic state by recombinant DNA technology as well as via designing the best-suited photoreactor encompassing the cultivation methods. Typically, during the continuous cultivation, cells are maintained in an exponential phase, to reach maximal growth rates and biomass production. The process innovation is centric to the type of organism and conditions favoring the production of biomass and exopolysaccharides.