Bumble bees are large and conspicuous insects that are both ecologically and economically important. Global efforts to revise the taxonomy of all species and document their threat status are currently being undertaken that will improve our understanding of their taxonomy, systematics, distribution pattern, threats, and decline in population. As cold-adapted bees, they mainly inhabit temperate regions, and they are particularly diverse in mountain ranges. With its large share of the great Himalayan range, India harbours a large diversity of bumble bees and 49 species are currently known from India. In this chapter, the taxonomy of bumble bees is reviewed and bumble bee research relevant to India is discussed.