Coccinellidae (Coleoptera: Coccinelloidea) are popularly known as lady beetles or ladybird beetles. True lady beetles are easily identified by their bright and pretty appearance with striking spots and patterns, but the less conspicuous ones are often neglected and poorly studied. Most species are beneficial both as adults and larvae as predators of crop pests, and members of the tribe Epilachnini are entirely phytophagous. Predatory Coccinellidae feed on diverse prey including aphids, mealybugs, scales, psyllids, whiteflies, fungal spores, pollen, and occasionally, plant tissue. There are ~375 genera and more than 6,000 described species worldwide. The Indian coccinellid fauna is rich and diverse, but poorly known with about 550 species known under 90 genera, 16 tribes, and two subfamilies. The Indian fauna has not been studied in detail due to the lack of collections spanning the entire country, including its biodiversity hotspots. This chapter provides a brief overview of the Indian fauna of Coccinellidae in the light of the latest classification based on morphological and molecular characterization, their distribution pattern, biology and host associations, and utilization in applied biological control. A road map is discussed for establishing a sound systematic framework for Indian Coccinellidae based on primary taxonomic revisions of all the major groups using an integrated approach.