Flea beetles constitute Alticini, the largest tribe within Chrysomeloidea, the leaf beetles. These are specialist herbivores, mostly on higher plants, while a few genera thrive on ferns or mosses. Information on the classification and biology of south Indian flea beetles is limited. Based on larval mode of life, south Indian flea beetles can be divided into four major ecological groups: (1) root feeders; (2) open leaf feeders; (3) leaf miners, and (4) fruit borers. Flea beetle fauna of south India encompasses 190 named species placed in 54 genera. Host plants are known only for about 73 species (38%) in 27 genera. Life histories of most flea beetles in south India are not known. The best known are those of the common Altica [probably A. aenea (Olivier)], the endemic pepper pollu beetle Lanka ramakrishnai Prathapan & Viraktamath, and Podontia congregata Baly. At least two species, the introduced Chaetocnema confinis Crotch and Hyphasis sita (Maulik) reproduce exclusively through parthenogenesis, as males do not occur here. The chapter provides an overview of biology, key to genera, checklist of species, and a list of economically important flea beetles in south India.