This chapter aims to lay a foundation for planned future investigations, including natural range modelling of species within the larger framework of understanding the diversity and distribution of the Oriental Plecoptera in general and Plecoptera of India in particular. The order Plecoptera, commonly called as stoneflies, is a small monophyletic Blattoid-Orthopteroid order of hemimetabolous insects, distributed over all continents except Antarctica and constitute a significant ecological component of running water ecosystems. Stonefly larvae are generally found in high altitude cold temperate streams, though some genera have penetrated to the cooler areas of subtropics and tropics. The family Capniidae, commonly known as “Winter Stoneflies” is a remarkable group of mostly winter emerging species. The perlids are generally known as “Common Stoneflies,” and they are carnivorous predators feeding on wide range of invertebrates. The Oriental stonefly fauna inclusive of that of India was colonized from close Palearctic areas, as suggested by the decrease in species numbers towards the south.