Electrospinning is not only applied in laboratories, but is also increasingly being employed in industry, which has attracted widespread attention in the field of nanotechnology. Electrospinning provides a facile and efficient approach for generating uniform fiber-shaped nanostructures with solid or hollow interiors that are ultralong in length, ultrafine in diameter, and diversified in composition. Normally, the basic apparatus for electrospinning in the lab is assembled with three major parts: a high-voltage power supply, a spinning nozzle, and a grounded collector. With the rapid development of nanoscale science and technology, the electrospun nanofibers which exhibit the unique features of the nanostructured materials will find potential applications in biomedicine, filtration, protective clothing, catalysis, sensors, energy storage, electronic and optical devices. Some raw materials for electrospinning have favorable biocompatibility and biodegradability, which can serve as the built-in drug carriers that are easy to be absorbed by the human body.