A 55-year-old caucasian male with a long-standing history of dyspepsia was seen in A&E complaining of retrosternal discomfort. Based on his medical history you think that he has gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD).

Give two risk factors for GORD. (2 marks)

Although you suspect that this is a likely case of GORD, what other acute medical condition must you exclude in this patient? (1 mark)

Having done the relevant investigations, you are satisfied that this patient is medically safe to be discharged home with outpatient follow-up. Give two further tests you could use to diagnose this condition. (2 marks)

Following the above investigations, histology results were consistent with Barrett’s oesophagus. What is Barrett’s oesophagus? (2 marks)

Besides Barrett’s oesophagus, give two other complications of GORD. (2 marks)

Why is it important to follow up patients with Barrett’s oesophagus? (1 mark)

Give two management options available to this patient. (2 marks)