This chapter summarizes the scientific literature on nabilone. A number of synthetic routes to nabilone and related 9-ketocannabinoids exist. A complete description of the physicochemical properties of nabilone, including spectra, solubility profile, and stability, along with methods of analysis of production lots of raw material has been published. The antiemetic effects of nabilone have been observed in pigeons given a challenge of cisplatin. A number of animal test systems were used to study the behavioral effects of nabilone compared to other closely related cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol and chlordiazepoxide. Respiratory depressant effects were observed, ultimately leading to respiratory failure at the higher cumulative doses. While the exact mechanism of action of cannabinoids such as nabilone is unknown, evidence points to activity at sites within the central nervous system. In humans, the metabolism of nabilone appears to be quite extensive and complex. Some separate groups of clinical investigators have conducted studies to assess the antianxiety effects of nabilone.