ABSTRACT

This chapter focuses on the pharmacology of the afferents and their transmitters using functional end points from the single neuron to behavior. The variety of neurotransmitters identified for pallidal structures and the diversity of brain regions represented by pallidal inputs promote the conclusion that considerable interaction occurs among the transmitters within the pallidum. Pallidal transmission consistently influences lateral movements; vertical movement, such as rearing and wall climbing; and oral-facial motor functions. The motoric functions involve a myriad of neurotransmitters, encompassing classical, peptide, and amino acid, transmitters. Anatomical and functional overviews have clearly defined the ventral pallidal (VP) as a component of the brain’s motor system. Because the VP is located downstream to several limbic regions, and since VP neuronal activity is correlated with goal directed behaviors, the VP may be important in the planning and initiation of movements relevant to meaningful stimuli.