Membrane technologies have been increasingly used in the production of clean water. However, biofouling of membranes significantly limits water purification efficiency. Inhibition of quorum sensing (QS) pathways among natural aquatic bacteria can be an effective strategy to prevent biofilm formation and alleviate membrane biofouling. Wide ranges of QS inhibitors (QSI) or quorum quenchers have been investigated using model microbial organisms in reduction of membrane biofilm. These results show that QSI treatment in bulk fluid can significantly reduce the bacterial fouling layer. QSI can be incorporated onto the membrane surface through either physical adsorption or chemical linking. The QSI-modified membranes have shown improved performance in membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment or reverse osmosis operation for seawater desalination. An improved understanding of QS pathway and QSI active sites during inhibition reaction is a key for selection of effective QSI for membrane modification.