ABSTRACT

This chapter discusses the identification of glucose nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria other than pseudomonads and related forms encountered in clinical microbiology. The salient characteristics of miscellaneous nonfermenters and the characters useful for identification of the species and unnamed groups. Microscopic morphology is predominately diplococcal; hence, confusion with Neisseria is common. However, diplobacilli and bacilli may be observed along with diplococcal forms. Since the bacteria under discussion consist of genera and loosely associated unnamed groups, only a few major phenotypic similarities are shared in common. They are Gram-negative, asporogenous, rod-shaped organisms with quite variable cellular morphology ranging from bacilli or diplobacilli to diplococci. The genus Moraxella includes obligately aerobic, nonmotile bacteria that synthesize oxidase and produce alkali in carbohydrates. The genus Flavobacterium includes nonmotile bacilli that synthesize oxidase and produce oxidative acidity from glucose and other carbohydrates.