In the beginning, the Internet consisted of a network of connected servers at educational and industrial locations that users would access by being directly connected to the server on site or indirectly through remote terminals with modems connected to the main computers through telephone lines. Access networks can either be connected through wires or be wireless. This chapter analyzes different types of optical transport and access network architectures. Access networks have been evolving to meet the ever-increasing demand for capacity. An access network is the one that a network operator uses to provide connectivity to a large number of subscribers. Service selection, transmission medium and transport technologies unique to each type of access network have implications on the network size and capabilities, on how these access networks have been deployed and how they have evolved. In cable, the HFC network from the hub to the subscriber is considered the access network.