Based on the statistical data of meteorological disasters in six provinces and Shanghai city in East China, the overall patterns, spatial and temporal changes of meteorological disasters and the risks faced by different regions of East China were analyzed. The results indicated that rainstorm-induced flood (landslide and mud-rock flow) disaster affected the largest area and total failure area of crops, the largest population, and caused the greatest number of houses to collapse during 2004–2015. Strong convection weather (gale, hail, thunder, and lightning) disaster resulted in the highest number of deaths, and typhoon disaster caused the greatest direct economic losses. Over the past 12 years, there have been significant decreasing trends in the affected area and the total failure area of crops, the number of people affected and deaths by meteorological disasters in East China, while the direct economic loss caused by meteorological disasters showed no significant trends. The risk of meteorological disaster had obvious regional differences in East China. In the northern part of East China, the risk of drought and strong convection weather disaster was higher, but in the southern area there was a higher risk of rainstorm-induced flood disaster. In the eastern coastal areas of East China, the risk of typhoon disaster was higher. Disaster risk analysis has an important significance for disaster prevention and reduction, risk management and crisis response.