Understanding the evolution law for aviation emergency rescues after earthquakes is very important for the rational dispatch of rescue aircraft and improving rescue efficiency. Based on the mechanisms of earthquake evolution, this paper discusses evolution law for aviation emergency rescues after earthquakes. The proposed methodology consists of three steps: (1) analysis of the common evolution mechanisms of emergency events to determine the evolution mechanisms of earthquakes; (2) macro evolution law analysis to describe the stages of aviation emergency rescue processes; (3) micro evolution law analysis to clarify the mission priorities of each stage of the aviation emergency rescue process. A numerical example is presented based on the large-scale earthquake that occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan to demonstrate the evolution law.