There is growing evidence that climate change impacts and extreme weather events will continue to challenge planning and management of water resources worldwide. Within the Australian context, this is evident considering the drought and flood events that have occurred over the last two decades. While traditionally land use planning and water resources management have been carried out separately, urban areas need to quickly advance and prepare to respond to increased challenges brought about by extreme weather events and future climate change. This chapter analyzes responses from state and local authorities to two significant extreme weather events that affected the South East Queensland region: the Millennium Drought (1997–2007) and the 2011 floods. Lessons are extracted from the analysis to inform future climate change adaptation strategies in Australia and elsewhere.