This chapter provides an overview of the European Union (EU) project research landscape in computational nanotoxicology, highlights the challenges for development and use of computational approaches in the safety assessment of nanomaterials and analyzing progress against the needs. It presents an overview of the European predictive nanotoxicity modeling landscape in research projects, on the basis of the results of the Joint Research Centre Nanocomput project. The chapter summarizes recommendations for further research and development in view of increasing the availability and uptake of computational methods for the safety assessment of nanomaterials (NMs). The NanoSafety Cluster (NSC) is the overarching umbrella for European research projects addressing the safety of materials and technologies using NMs, aiming at fostering exchange and synergies and avoiding duplication of work. The NSC issues a yearly compendium describing the status of EU projects related to nanosafety research and giving an update on the NSC working groups, for example.