The 21st century puts forth new challenges and records unexpected changes, now forcing people to find innovative solutions to many problems that the society faces. The miniaturization of such devices clearly requires the development of new materials with highly complex properties, backed by new discoveries. A lot of manufacturing companies are involved in the race to become leaders on the market, by producing and promoting competitive materials, equipped with remarkable characteristics and valences, called nanomaterials. In order to raise the degree of interest in science, the educational system must help the teachers, students and learners to get knowledge related to the cutting-edge discoveries that appear in its various fields. The theory of learning and cognitive development advanced by Jean Piaget is often integrated into the constructivist paradigm of the genetic structuralism. Nanoscience and nanotechnology represent components of avant-garde science and, at the same time, present new and amazing content for science education that can arouse the students’ interest.