This article analyses cases in which regional citizenship is an essential part of constitutional architecture either in the form of peace agreement or federal/autonomy settlement. Apart from offering a characterisation of regional citizenships, the article argues that the franchise and formal (sub-state) regional citizenry should be more closely corresponding in cases where regional citizenship forms an indispensable part of the constitutional arrangement. Importantly, while referring to some of the more complex and (what is perceived in the literature as) unusual cases, the article questions the established citizenship hierarchy where regional citizenship is considered to be derivative of national (state-level) citizenship.