Research has begun to highlight aspects of biointerfacial phenomena which uniquely impact the adsorptive capacity of nanostructured carbons in biomedical applications. This chapter considers some developments in nanostructured carbons using a range of forms, allowing adaptation to clinical and environmental requirements. Primarily medical device applications are within organ replacement perfusion devices for detoxification, oral preparations for enterosorption and wound dressings. The umbrella title of nanostructured carbons incorporates nanoporous activated carbons and can extend to 2-dimensional adsorbent graphene derivatives which have demonstrated a capacity for adsorption of inflammatory molecules. The use of activated carbons in liver and kidney dialysis declined after early positive clinical findings. Activated carbon monoliths have been developed through advances in production technology using synthetic pre-cursors and carefully controlled formulation, carbonisation and activation procedures. Advances in carbon technology allow the production of carbons in a range of forms with surface area and nanoporosity tailored to adsorb key biotoxins including bacterial toxins, products of metabolism and inflammatory molecules.