China has undergone epochal changes since market-oriented reforms were launched in 1978 under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping. The most basic indicators tell us that China’s socio-economic transformation has been extremely rapid and, arguably, the most profound in China’s entire history. Relying on International Monetary Fund (IMF) data, between 1980 and 2015 China’s total population has increased by 387 million to 1.374 billion people, which is a population increase larger than the entire US population in 2015. 1