Canada has a long history in space exploration going back to 1962 when it became the third nation to put an artificial satellite, Alouette I, into space. Canada was also the first nation to establish its own domestic geostationary communications network with the launch of the Anik A satellite in 1972. By the time of the third astronaut selection in 2008–2009, the roles of the Canadian astronauts as mission specialists and flight engineers were well defined, as were their posting and training locations. Most of the missions were expected to be of long-duration aboard the International Space Station. For Space Shuttle missions, most of the human behavior and performance support for the Canadian astronauts was provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Future international exploration plans involve extended missions beyond low Earth orbit, including missions to Mars.