Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) was established in 1963 by the Ministry of Health of the Soviet Union upon the request of the Constructor General of the Soviet space rockets, Sergei Korolev. The prime objective of the IBMP was execution of ground-based and inflight research in the area of human health and working capacity under extreme factors of extended spaceflight. Later on, when the duration of space mission increased, Ministry of Health required IBMP to be responsible for the medical support of the Soviet space crews. During a period of 55 years, IBMP, upon requests of Soviet and Russian space industry, executed numerous works in the areas of space medicine and biology, gravitational physiology, radiobiology, life support systems, and psychophysiology. Still Institute’s activities in the areas of inflight medical support, maintenance of health and working capacity of the Russian cosmonauts remain the prime objective of IBMP. This chapter is devoted to the small area of inflight medical support – to the psychophysiological control, support, and research that has been carried out by the ШИЬЗ during recent period of execution of Russian Space Program.