The compaction of an asphalt mixture is greatly important for ensuring durable pavement performance. In the past decades, laboratory compaction methods have been widely used to produce the test specimens, which undergo testing to infer the behaviour of asphalt pavements in the field. To ensure the consistency of samples both on the laboratory scale and from the field, a new laboratory compaction device (Aachen compactor) has been developed. Specimens manufactured by different compaction methods including field compaction, Aachen compaction and Marshall compaction were comprehensively compared and evaluated in this research using experimental tests, digital image processing techniques and the finite element method. The Aachen compactor specimens tend to show a better correlation with field samples than Marshall specimens. Therefore, the Aachen compactor is a feasible alternative for manufacturing asphalt specimens in the laboratory and thus can be used to better simulate the mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures in the field.