Chromatography is an analytical technique of separating complex mixtures into their individual components. Chromatography is a versatile biophysical separation technique widely used to purify and identify the molecules within a sample mixture using phase equilibrium partitioning for qualitative and quantitative analysis. It is a method based on the principle of solute distribution between a stationary and a mobile phase. Many characteristics of the target molecules such as net surface charge, size and shape, hydrophobicity of the groups present on the surface, and binding ability can be utilized for separation and purification. The chromatography techniques are widely developed and applied by many researchers and scientists. The significant advantage of simplifying the complex problem makes chromatography an inevitable research tool needed by researchers. Today, chromatography technology is utilized in various fields such as physics, chemistry, botany, medicine, microbiology, pharmacology, and so on. Chapter 6 describes the basic types of chromatography, and the principles and applications of chromatography for better understanding of different chromatographic techniques.