This chapter presents an overview the biodiversity of Sudan including description of status of ecosystems and populations to the best to our knowledge, importance of some plants and animals in livelihoods, major threats and some conservation efforts, and crucial future directions needed for better biodiversity conservation. The ecosystems in Sudan is divided into two major types; namely aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Sudan has political commitment to mainstream biodiversity components and ecosystem as high development priorities. There are many opportunities for mainstreaming and endorsement such as the National Constitution, policies, strategies, and legislations. Sudan can be ecologically divided into five vegetation zones according to rainfall patterns from North to South. These are: desert; semi-desert; low rainfall savannah on clay and sand; high rainfall savannah; and mountain vegetation. The agricultural sector has a vital role to play in achieving food Security by intensifying food production and providing employment opportunities in the rural area. Sudan has cultivable arable land estimated at 86 million hectare.