Biodiversity supports the functioning of ecosystems and provides ecosystem services that ensure food security, human health and the development of a Gabon. In Gabon, the main driving force responsible for the loss of biological diversity and the degradation of ecosystem services remains the development choices that result in the overexploitation of natural resources and thus affecting biological diversity. The pressure on agricultural biodiversity lies particularly in the large-scale conversion of land as part of the establishment of agro-industrial plantations of oil palm, rubber, cocoa and coffee. This conversion is a source of loss of biological diversity and impoverishment of ecosystem services. Industrial fishing, illegally practiced by trawlers, is a major threat to marine biodiversity. At the coastal and continental levels, the main threats to the conservation and sustainable use of fisheries resources have been identified, including: the use of prohibited and nonselective fishing gear; and weak enforcement of fisheries resources exploitation and protection regulations.