This chapter describes the geography and climatic conditions as well as biodiversity systems in Ghana. There are six main agro-ecological zones defined on the basis of climate, reflected by the natural vegetation and influenced by the soils. These are Rain Forest, Deciduous Forest, Transitional zone, Coastal Savanna, Guinea Savanna and Sudan Savanna zones. The chapter further assesses the status of Ghana's biodiversity and genetic diversity of some cultivated plants in Ghana. It deliberates on biodiversity loss and conservation legislation on biodiversity and international conventions related to biodiversity conservation in Ghana. In 1948, a forest policy was adopted in Ghana to regulate the forest activities through: the creation and management of permanent forest estates; research into all branches of scientific forestry; maximum utilization of areas not dedicated to permanent forestry; and provision of technical advice and cooperation in schemes for the prevention of soil erosion and in land use plans.