Senegalese territory is rich in animal and plant diversity and water potential. The main terrestrial ecosystems of Senegal are steppes, savannahs, and forests. Steppes consist of scattered shrubs or scattered trees and shrubs with a density of less than 10 feet/ha. In Senegal, the degradation of ecosystems is linked to the combined action of several factors including the expansion of agricultural land, the overexploitation of biological resources, overgrazing, bushfires, invasive species, increasing urbanization, and climatic changes. An ecosystem is a spatially defined dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and their interacting inorganic environment as a functional entity. Salinization is also one of the main factors of ecosystem degradation. Soil salinization is known in two forms: primary salinization from the source rock and secondary salinization that depends on a whole set of processes and environmental factors.