The limbic system is a complex set of structures in the midbrain that includes the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and the cingulate cortex. The limbic system is also closely integrated with the immune, endocrine, and autonomic nervous systems. Inflammation and physical trauma are two factors of many that can alter the functionality of the limbic system. The hypothalamus is the primary output node for the limbic system and is responsible for sexual function, endocrine function, behavioral function, and autonomic control. The limbic system, and more specifically the amygdala, is an important area of the brain for modulating the amount of pain experienced for a given noxious stimulus. The latero-capsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala has been described as the “nociceptive amygdala” and appears to act at different levels of the pain neuraxis to both facilitate and inhibit pain modulation.