This chapter discusses the scope of the problem, recognition of common substance use disorders (SUD) symptoms, basic information regarding the diagnosis and treatment of SUD, basic information about diagnosis and addiction severity, understanding motivation for the patient struggling with an SUD, and promising approaches or best practices for the treatment of SUD with this population. Recognition of an SUD necessitates that any medical professional faced with a patient in medical crisis must first have some level of awareness that any patient in front of them could be struggling with an active SUD while experiencing other medical conditions that require immediate attention. When full integration occurs—when healthcare systems, academic institutions, and public safety and behavioral health specialists embrace and recognize the value of adopting a reliable educational base of knowledge about SUD and the option of supporting consistent protocols at all levels of care—we then might see significant progress.