ABSTRACT

The Montreal Protocol (MP) on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production and consumption of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion including methyl bromide (MB). Many technically and economically feasible alternatives (nonchemical and chemical) for the control of soilborne pathogens attacking many horticultural crops in different environmental conditions have been developed and have proven to be as efficient as MB. In developed (non-Article 5) and developing countries (Article 5), more than 98% of the controlled consumption of MB has been replaced with alternatives. The ozone hole is slowly recovering, and it is expected that the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070. This will be the first time in history that humankind has reversed an environmental problem of such magnitude. The MP is considered as one of the most successful and effective environmental treaties ever negotiated and implemented. The success of the MP is due to a mixture of reasons. Many lessons can be learned from this treaty and could be applied to phase out other dangerous agricultural chemical substances such as synthetic pesticides, particularly in Africa.