This chapter discusses the history of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and multiple documented controversies involving the agency’s actions to regulate industries that pollute the environment and endanger public health. This examination of EPA actions shows the agency to be one in which political will often takes precedence over proven science, leading the agency to roll back necessary protective regulations in some areas while simply ignoring or exempting dangerous products and practices in others. This is not only a problem for the United States, but for the rest of the world as well because the EPA’s reach is far broader than the boundaries of one nation. As a key regulator in one of the world’s largest and most important economic engines, the agency wields deep political and cultural influence around the globe.