Gunungsewu is the most densely populated karst area in Indonesia. The area experience severe water scarcity due to difficult groundwater access. The area experience limited water supply and high dependence on climate livelihood. Groundwater is in the form of underground rivers occurring at the depth of 100 m or more. People in this area use rainwater, piped water pumped from underground river, tank water, spring, and doline pond water. To cope with water shortage, the local people are practicing unique livelihood by doing seasonal crop farming, agroforestry, cattle raising, and temporal migration. The farmers grow rainfed paddy, cassava, maize, groundnuts, or soybean, teak, acacia, and mahogany. Besides, each of them has up to five cows, seven goats, and seven chickens. The use seasonal crop mostly for subsistence living, and agroforestry and cattle for saving money, meeting accidental expenses, and fulfilling their secondary and tertiary needs. Migration is another livelihood during the interval between planting and harvesting seasons. People migrate temporarily to the nearby cities to have part-time works or permanently settle in farther cities or other islands. The most recent livelihood is in the tourism sector by utilizing caves and the underground river. The water supply projects in the last 10 years have resulted in better living conditions and attracted some migrants to return to their hometowns.