This chapter addresses health system performance. The goal is to develop mathematical tools for setting up innovative approaches to be used for increasing the efficiency of a healthcare system. Modern methods of comparative analysis are performed for this purpose. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) method was mainly used to assess the production efficiency. However, lately the method was successfully used in the analysis of the efficiency of some healthcare systems. This allows us to use it as an innovative tool. DEA method evaluates the effectiveness of health systems in the countries of the world according to parameters such as the share of total expenditure on healthcare from gross domestic product (GDP), the share of total expenditure on healthcare from GDP per capita, the share of private expenditures on total health expenditure and the number of hospital beds per 100,000 populations. Using data on the economic efficiency of the functioning of the medical industry, it is possible to conduct a study on the impact of the resulting indicators on average life expectancy. The application of DEA method to analyze the efficiency of healthcare system is an innovative approach as formerly it has been used principally to evaluate the effectiveness of manufacturing and its productivity. In this research, we examine the analysis of the functioning surroundings to determine the efficiency of the decision-making index that were represented by healthcare systems from 53 countries all over the world.