Tropical root and tuber crops are gaining more importance presently due to their climate-the word climate resilience is very important for tuber crops resilient nature and irreplaceable role in assuring food security, especially in the developing countries. The major tropical root and tuber crops are cassava/tapioca (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), yams (Dioscorea spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius) and tania (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Storage ability of tubers provides an opportunity to market the product, safeguards year-round supply and helps the growers realize better prices. Many viruses and fungi infection of tuber crops cause great loss to growers. The postharvest invasion of various pathogens takes the lead in increasing the loss. Postharvest pathogens make their way to the tuber through wounds or injury that occurs during harvest, transportation, packaging operations and storage processes. The pathogens belonging to the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gloeosporium, Mucor, Monilinia, Penicillium and Rhizopus cause the most important postharvest diseases in tuber crops. Many physical methods, chemicals, bioagents and botanicals are being utilized for minimizing and managing postharvest diseases. Tuber crops are clonally propagated and thus storage is an essential factor. Minimizing postharvest losses increases food availability to the growing human population, decreases the area needed for production and conserves natural resources. Correct information is essential in formulating an effective and eco-friendly management strategy and thus ensuring tubers that are safe to eat at affordable prices. Precise identification of the pathogens responsible for various diseases, preharvest and postharvest environmental conditions that favour the disease along with proper handling and curing helps in alleviating the huge postharvest loss encountered.