This chapter discusses the how utilisation technologies for bio-resources are influenced by their spatial context, what properties are critically important for optimal value chains based on bio-resources and what guides the structure of regional utilisation technology networks. Heat is an almost inevitable (by-) product of almost any bio-resource based value chain and, given its short distribution range, its utilisation shapes optimal local and regional bio-resource exploitation systems; therefore, in order to utilise bio-resources fully, there must be an equilibrium of local heat sources and heat consumption. Advantages for the local and regional context are a higher value added by utilising more of the available bio-resources and the provision of more goods and services by a local supplier. Planning the most optimal utilisation system for bio-resources within a local and regional context requires that only forestry, agricultural and technological considerations but logistics, existing distribution grids for energy and the structure of the local and regional economic system be taken into account.