Forestry wastes are less costly than premium forestry resources and so represent potential feedstock for bioenergy. In this work, the Foreground processes for forestry wastes include activities at the source, pelletisation where relevant, and transport by rail or heavy diesel truck to the bioenergy conversion plant. Anaerobic Digestion can be used to convert food waste, animal manure and crop residues into biogas, typically containing 60% methane and 40% CO2, with traces of other gases that impart the characteristic odour. Biomass was also a major source of chemicals, such as oils from seeds and fruits, and pharmaceuticals, in the form of herbal medications. Biomass, particularly lignocellulosic biomass, differs from most fossil fuels in that it is a distributed source with low energy density. Basing the analysis on a region relatively rich in biomass reveals the real constraints on the contribution that bioenergy can make to GHG abatement even under the most favourable circumstances.