Electron Probe Microanalysis, EPMA
DOI link for Electron Probe Microanalysis, EPMA
Electron Probe Microanalysis, EPMA book
Recent developments in both instrumentation and analytical methods of EMPA are reviewed. Evaporated multilayers enhance the performance of WD spectrometers at long wavelengths, while doubly-curved crystals hold promise of higher intensities at ‘normal’ wavelengths. New robust thin windows for Si(Li) detectors are available and better resolution and throughput rates have become possible. Absorption correction methods based on improved ‘phi-rho-z models’ give better results, especially for light elements. The Monte Carlo method for electron trajectory simulation, which provides useful information on absorption and other corrections, has been refined with the benefit of more powerful computers, and has been applied to tilted specimens, particles, and layered samples.