Chromatography is based on subtle differences in substance distribution between a fluid, usually mobile, and a solid, usually stationary, phase. Few laboratories in the life sciences do not depend on this extremely versatile, high-resolution separation technique, albeit mostly for analytical purposes. However, the recent growth of the biopharmaceutical and biotechnical industry has also increased the pressure to enrich and isolate a host of compounds from complex mixtures and hence rekindled the interest in chromatography as a preparative rather than an analytical tool. Given the particular needs of the bioindustries, the importance of preparative chromatography is expected to grow in the foreseeable future.