Close inspection of a kidney which has been sectioned sagitally reveals two major structural divisions: the granular appearing outermost cortex and inner striate medulla. The kidney is supplied and drained by a series of arterial and venous channels which course together through and derive their names from, the surrounding renal structures. Acute toxic insults to the kidney may alter renal function extensively; however, if the injury is sublethal and of short duration, recovery to normal function can occur rapidly. The inability of the kidney to produce concentrated urine may be due to cisplatin inhibition of Antidiuretic hormone release by the pituitary. A non-nephrotoxic metabolite may be produced in the liver then transported to the kidney, where further biotransformation results in the production of the ultimate nephrotoxin. Correlating with the major sites of tissue damage, proximal tubular cells of the kidney and centrolobular hepatocytes of the liver possess the highest organ concentrations of mixed function oxidase system enzymes.