Ayurveda is a traditional medicinal system that believes that food is responsible for the physical, temperamental, and mental states of an individual. Inappropriate diets create an imbalance in body organ systems, the mind, and the spirit, followed by various diseases. Traditional Indian foods have been prepared for many years, and preparation varies across the country. Traditional knowledge about the processing of food, preservation techniques, and therapeutic effects has been recognized for many generations in India. The functional properties of foods are further enhanced by processing techniques, such as sprouting, malting, and fermentation. The most commonly used process is fermentation, and a variety of fermented food products are being consumed in everyday life that provides a good amount of friendly and healthy bacteria to our body. Traditional fermented foods are a rich source of lactic acid bacteria and other good bacteria required for the gut, today known as probiotics. Per FAO/WHO, probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. This chapter highlights various fermented foods and various nutritional approaches that are being used to unfold their potential by screening, identifying, and evaluating various friendly bacteria in foods.