The incidence and spread of diabetes have increased rapidly around the world over the past two decades. Because the causative agents of diabetes are heterogeneous, clinically effective specific treatments for diabetes are challenging. Applying various nutrient analyses to it results in new insight and potential therapies for diabetics. This chapter summarizes methods for analyzing omics, including dietary genetics, metabolism, and foodomics. The list of new targets for nucleotides, genes, proteins, and gut microbes associated with diabetes was obtained through the analysis of nutritional genetics and microbiology during the past few years, which provides a reference for diagnosing diabetes. Using the new nutrient metabolism analysis, targets for amino acids, fats, and mineral elements can be obtained, which provides a reference for the treatment of diabetes. Foodomic analysis can provide targeted dietary strategies for diabetics. This chapter summarizes the molecular biomarkers associated with diabetes in the current applied omics analyses and may provide guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes patients.