Introduction to Vaccination
DOI link for Introduction to Vaccination
Introduction to Vaccination book
Vaccines and vaccine types are explained in detail in this chapter. The history of vaccine studies goes back a long way. Vaccination studies are linked to many events. For example, they are based on basic knowledge about microorganisms, such as how they infect cells and how the immune system reacts to them, and practical considerations such as the specific regions of the world where the vaccine will be used. In this way, the immune system recognizes a microorganism in the next encounter. There are various vaccine types such as conventional vaccine, live, attenuated vaccine, inactive vaccine, toxoid vaccine, cancer vaccine, biotechnological vaccine. Conventional (Classical) Vaccine: conventional vaccines are discussed in two groups – live attenuated vaccines and inactive vaccines. Classical vaccines used today – Live Attenuated Vaccines: live vaccines can be prepared with natural and artificial strains, but natural strains are safer and standard. Inactive Vaccines: inactivated vaccines are produced by killing the disease-causing microbe with chemicals, heat, or radiation. Toxoid Vaccines: this vaccine type is produced with the toxoids from microorganisms. Cancer Vaccines: these are similar to traditional vaccines. Biotechnological Vaccines: the biotechnological vaccines do not form an infection and turn out to eliminate the disadvantages of classical vaccines. Synthetic Peptide Vaccines: peptide-based vaccinations are often used with an immunoadjuvant (nanoparticle or biopolymers) to induce T cell and sometimes B cell immunity.