This chapter presents the perspective of one of the centers which is currently undergoing this transition. It provides examples of the expanded scope in assessments for various technologies showing the role of each of the three facets, i.e. energy savings, waste minimization and process improvements. Natural gas energy conservation opportunities can be sorted by end-use equipment such as boilers, burners, ovens, furnaces, coolers, and heaters. There exists many end-use devices that are general in that their function is not dependent of the energy source. Examples of such equipment include heat exchangers, thermal insulation, stack dampers, infiltration inhibitors, heat recovery, and various controllers. The classification of waste minimization opportunities (WMOs) can be divided into source reduction, material substitution, recycling, waste treatment, and alternative waste management techniques. Recycling WMOs receive significant attention because of various local, state and federal regulations. The assessment process to identify WMOs requires consideration of the manufacturer’s process operation, basic chemistry, and various environmental concerns and needs.