ABSTRACT

In 2005 Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf coast of the USA, generating a large storm surge and high waves which affected the shorelines of New Orleans city and Louisiana and Alabama states. As a result of this there were over 1,800 casualties and a total of over $100 billion of capital stock being destroyed, with the indirect costs adding a further $23 billion (Hallegatte, 2008). The traumatic images broadcasted by the media of the country highlighted the risks posed by storm surges throughout the planet (see also Section 5.2), which could get worse in the future due to the potential intensification of these events due to climate change (see Section 7.2).