Japan has long stretches of coastal defence structures along its shorelines to protect hinterlands against tsunamis, storm surges, high waves, and coastal erosion. The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami caused serious damage to many of the structures along the Pacific Coast of the northeastern part of Japan. In particular, coastal dykes suffered severe damage due to the tsunami (see Section 2.6). According to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (2011), 190 km out of a total of 300 km of coastal dykes in the three most affected prefectures (Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima) were completely or partially destroyed due to the tsunami.