ABSTRACT

A significant tsunami can cause devastating damage to coastal communities situated along the shoreline. In the case of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, a total of more than 230,000 people died in countries around the Indian Ocean (Shibayama 2015, see also Section 2.1). The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami (see Section 2.6) devastated coastal communities in the Tohoku region, Japan and caused over 16,000 dead or missing (National Police Agency of Japan 2020). The 2018 Palu Tsunami (see Section 2.7) and the 2018 Sunda Strait Tsunami (see Section 2.8) also ravaged coastal areas in Indonesia (Mikami et al. 2019; Krautwald et al. 2021; Stolle et al. 2020; Harnantyari et al. 2020; Takabatake et al. 2019a).