Anatomy of the head and neck
DOI link for Anatomy of the head and neck
Anatomy of the head and neck book
This chapter provides an overview of the principal features, with craniofacial anatomy included to link anatomically with the underlying structures, including the neuroanatomy, which may be of particular significance in penetrating or blunt head trauma. The anatomical surface features of the face are never totally symmetrical. The shape and size of the hairline vary with race and the eyebrows can also be highly variable. Inferior to the nose is the mouth, surrounded by the lips. Ethnic differences are often prominent. Mongoloid epicanthic folds and other minor folds of skin in the medial aspect of the orbit should be noted. Conditions such as exophthalmos associated with hyperthyroidism can result in prominent eyes. The facial nerve enters the face by passing through the tough fibrous capsule of the parotid gland and can be damaged during surgical procedures to that gland. The external nose varies considerably in size and shape in individuals and races because of differences in the nasal cartilage structure.